z e n g i d



S/S = William F. Spengler and Wayne G. Sayles, Turkoman Figural Bronze Coins and Their Iconography, Volume 1: The Artuqids and Volume 2: The Zengids, Clio's Cabinet, Wisconsin (1992)
Edhem = I. Ghalib Edhem, Catalogue des Monnaies Turcomanes du Musee Imperial Ottoman, Arnaldo Forni, Bologna (1965 (1894))
Album = Stephen Album, A Checklist of Popular Islamic Coins, Album, California (1993)
Broome = Michael Broome, A Handbook of Islamic Coins, Seaby, London (1985)
Marsden = William Marsden/Stephen Album, Numismata Orientalia Illustrata, Attic Books, New York (1977 (1823))



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Zengid Atabegs of Sinjar

'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)

S/S 78


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 577 (1181 / 1182 AD), Nisibin mint
S/S 78.1 (this coin) (sub-type I)
27 mm.
14.37 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Three line Kufic legend; marginal legend. One beaded inner circle.
Reverse: Three line Kufic legend; marginal legend.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 579 (1183 / 1184 AD) (date off flan), Nisibin mint
S/S 78.2 type (sub-type II)
25 mm.
9.94 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Four line Kufic legend; marginal legend. Two beaded inner circles.
Reverse: Three line Kufic legend; marginal legend.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 579 (1183 / 1184 AD) (date off flan), Nisibin mint
S/S 78.2 type (sub-type II)
25 x 26 mm.
12.13 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Four line Kufic legend; marginal legend. Two beaded inner circles.
Reverse: Three line Kufic legend; marginal legend.
Note: Courtesy Richard Bilak collection.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 580 (1184 / 1185 AD), Nisibin mint
S/S 78.3 (sub-type II)
26 mm.
13.47 gm.
Die position=5h
Obverse: Four line Kufic legend; marginal legend. Three beaded inner circles.
Reverse: Three line Kufic legend; marginal legend.

S/S 79


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
Sinjar mint
S/S 79 type
23 mm.
6.91 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
Sinjar mint
S/S 79 type
23 mm.
6.98 gm.
Die position=8h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
Sinjar mint
S/S 79 type
23 mm.
5.67 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 592 (1195 / 1196 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 79.8
22 mm.
7.52 gm.
Die position=4h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
Sinjar mint
S/S 79 type
24 mm.
7.34 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Didn't figure date yet.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
Sinjar mint
S/S 79 type
23 x 24 mm.
6.64 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Didn't figure date yet.


'Imad al-Din Zengi II (1170 - 1197 AD)
AE Dirham
Sinjar mint
S/S 79 type
24 x 25 mm.
8.70 gm.
Die position=11h
Obverse: Double headed eagle.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Unusual with clear breast ornament. Didn't figure date yet.

Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)

S/S 80


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 594 or 595 (1197 - 1199 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 80 type (probably 80.2)
24 mm.
6.48 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 594 or 595 (1197 - 1199 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 80.2
21 x 22 mm.
4.75 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Lightest known specimen. Courtesy Richard Bilak collection.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 594 or 595 (1197 - 1199 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 80 type
22 x 23 mm.
5.99 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 595 (1198 / 1199 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 80.3
20 mm.
4.79 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 595 (1198 / 1199 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 80.3 (?)
21 mm.
7.76 gm.
Die position=4h
Obverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.

S/S 81


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 596 (1199 / 1200 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 81.1
26 mm.
10.19 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Heroic male bust left, holding scepter and shield; Kufic legend. Early issue with Tamgha.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
Mint: Sinjar
AH year: 596
S/S 81.1
26 mm.
9.61 gm.
Die position=4h
Obverse: Heroic male bust left, holding scepter and shield; Kufic legend. Early issue with Tamgha.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
Mint: Sinjar
AH year: 596
S/S 81.1
26 mm.
9.61 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Heroic male bust left, holding scepter and shield; Kufic legend. Early issue with Tamgha.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 596 (1199 / 1200 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 81.1
26 mm.
10.92 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Heroic male bust left, holding scepter and shield; Kufic legend. Early issue with Tamgha.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Struck over earlier issue.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 596 (1199 / 1200 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 81.1
25 mm.
11.04 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Heroic male bust left, holding scepter and shield; Kufic legend.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 598 (1201 / 1202 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 81.2
25 mm.
12.77 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Heroic male bust left, holding scepter and shield; Kufic legend.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.

S/S 82


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 600 (1203 / 1204 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 82.1
28 x 27 mm.
13.90 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: Female bust wearing crested Corinthian helmet; breastplate over triple-folded garment. Image possibly modeled on the statue of Athena Promachos (460 BC), destroyed as the Fourth Crusade reached Constantinople in June, 1203 AD.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Courtesy Richard Bilak collection.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 601 (1204 / 1205 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 82.2
27 mm.
16.00 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Female bust wearing crested Corinthian helmet; breastplate over triple-folded garment. Image possibly modeled on the statue of Athena Promachos (460 BC), destroyed as the Fourth Crusade reached Constantinople in June, 1203 AD.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: 2nd heaviest known specimen.


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 601 (1204 / 1205 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 82.2
29 mm.
16.29 gm.
Die position=8h
Obverse: Female bust wearing crested Corinthian helmet; breastplate over triple-folded garment. Image possibly modeled on the statue of Athena Promachos (460 BC), destroyed as the Fourth Crusade reached Constantinople in June, 1203 AD.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Heaviest known specimen.

S/S 83


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 606 (1209 / 1210 AD), Sinjar mint
S/S 83.1 (this coin)
28 mm.
14.42 gm.
Die position=11h
Obverse: Double headed eagle with Zengid tamgha on breast. Marginal Kufic legend.
Reverse: Six line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.

Al-Amjad Fath al-Din 'Umar bin Muhammad (1219 - 1220 AD)

S/S 84

Zengid Atabegs of al Jazira

Mu'izz al-Din Sanjar Shah (1180 - 1209 AD)

S/S 85


Mu'izz al-Din Sanjar Shah (1180 - 1209 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 584 (1188 / 1189 AD)
S/S 85.1v.
33 mm.
13.41 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Draped male bust with Turkish features facing slightly left, hair in knot at forehead; Kufic legend.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This coin is overstruck on a dirham of 'Izz al-Din Mas'ud I, S/S 63 (seated female holding a crescent). Enough of the undertype is visible to show the date AH 584, a date previously unknown for the type.


Mu'izz al-Din Sanjar Shah (1180 - 1209 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 584 (1188 / 1189 AD)
S/S 85.1
31 mm.
12.47 gm.
Die position=8h
Obverse: Draped male bust with Turkish features facing slightly left, hair in knot at forehead; Kufic legend.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


Mu'izz al-Din Sanjar Shah (1180 - 1209 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 584 (1188 / 1189 AD)
S/S 85.1
29 x 28 mm.
11.54 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Draped male bust with Turkish features facing slightly left, hair in knot at forehead; Kufic legend.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Overstrike.


Mu'izz al-Din Sanjar Shah (1180 - 1209 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 585 (1189 / 1190 AD)
S/S 85.2
32 mm.
17.26 gm.
Die position=4h
Obverse: Draped male bust with Turkish features facing slightly left, hair in knot at forehead; Kufic legend.
Reverse: Four line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.

S/S 86


Qutb al-Din Muhammud bin Zengi (1197 - 1219 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 600 (1203 / 1204 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 86.1 (?)
35 x 34 mm.
33.99 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha flanked by two pellets, all within circle of 12 arcs; marginal legend.
Reverse: Three line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: Courtesy Richard Bilak collection.

al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)

S/S 87


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 606 (1209 / 1210 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 87.1 (this coin)
27 mm.
15.04 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Turkish female bust wearing a three-pointed crown holding crescent; Zengid tamgha on the crescent. Kufic legend.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 606 (1209 / 1210 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 87.1
29 x 30 mm.
15.45 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Turkish female bust wearing a three-pointed crown holding crescent; Zengid tamgha on the crescent. Kufic legend.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 606 - 611 (1209 - 1215 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 87 type
28 mm.
14.48 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Turkish female bust wearing a three-pointed crown holding crescent; Zengid tamgha on the crescent. Kufic legend.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.
>Note: Courtesy Richard Bilak collection.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 606 - 611 (1209 - 1215 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 87 type
29 x 30 mm.
17.79 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Turkish female bust wearing a three-pointed crown holding crescent; Zengid tamgha on the crescent. Kufic legend.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.

S/S 88


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 618 (1221 / 1222 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 88
28 mm.
15.72 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Turkish female bust wearing a three-pointed crown holding crescent; Zengid tamgha on the crescent. Kufic legend.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 618 (1221 / 1222 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 88
31 x 30 mm.
17.11 gm.
Die position=4h
Obverse: Turkish female bust wearing a three-pointed crown holding crescent; Zengid tamgha on the crescent. Kufic legend.
Reverse: Five line central Kufic legend; marginal legends.

al Mu'azzam Mahmud with Wali 'Ahad al-Zahir (1241 - 1251 AD)

S/S 89


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 639 (1241 / 1242 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 89
25 x 23 mm.
9.26 gm.
Die position=8h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha in the form of a fulmen within beaded circle. Marginal cursive Kufic legend.
Reverse: Three line central cursive Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This is the last Zengid issue.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 639 (1241 / 1242 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 89
25 mm.
8.70 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha in the form of a fulmen within beaded circle. Marginal cursive Kufic legend.
Reverse: Three line central cursive Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This is the last Zengid issue.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 639 (1241 / 1242 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 89
24 x 23 mm.
7.69 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha in the form of a fulmen within beaded circle. Marginal cursive Kufic legend.
Reverse: Three line central cursive Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This is the last Zengid issue.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 639 (1241 / 1242 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 89
26 x 25 mm.
11.47 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha in the form of a fulmen within beaded circle. Marginal cursive Kufic legend.
Reverse: Three line central cursive Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This is the last Zengid issue. Courtesy Richard Bilak collection.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 639 (1241 / 1242 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 89
22 mm.
7.76 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha in the form of a fulmen within beaded circle. Marginal cursive Kufic legend.
Reverse: Three line central cursive Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This is the last Zengid issue.


al Mu'azzam Mahmud (1209 - 1251 AD)
AE Dirham
AH 639 (1241 / 1242 AD), al Jazira mint
S/S 89
24 mm.
8.75 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Zengid tamgha in the form of a fulmen within beaded circle. Marginal cursive Kufic legend.
Reverse: Three line central cursive Kufic legend; marginal legends.
Note: This is the last Zengid issue.



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